Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics

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Create a List. Summary Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics reviews the state of superalloy technology and some of the more salient aspects of alternative high temperature systems such as superceramics and supercomposites.

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No Yes. Fratura Fadiga. Note the less crystallographic nature of the fracture on Source: Ref 46 Fig. At the two higher temperatures, the growth rates are an order of magnitude larger than at the lower temperatures. The anisotropic nature of single crystals renders a straightforward application of fracture mechanics problematic. These issues were addressed in a recent study Ref Using a finite element approach to determine the stresses ahead of the crack tip, and taking into account elastic anisotropy, it was demonstrated that the features on the fracture surface depended on the critical combinations of normal and shear stress as well as temperature, with environment also playing an important role.

Crack propagation was in the [], [], and [] directions. In another study of FCP in nickel-base alloys Ref 49 , Mar-M was tested under various loading and crack propagation directions. When crack branching and surface roughness were taken into account, it was possible to correlate the crack growth rate with the effective stress-intensity parameter.

Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics

The effective stress-intensity parameter takes into account the fact that there may be modes I, II, and III present in a single crystal that is nominally loaded in mode I. Acceptable correlations of the data were obtained using Keff. Those orientations for which crack deviation and closure were minimized showed the most rapid crack growth rates. Environmental Factors.

MSE 5441 - 11/27/2017 Nickel Superalloys Part 1

Fatigue crack propagation in nickel-base alloys has been shown to be very sensitive to both oxygen Ref 36 and hydrogen Ref The effect of oxygen has been demonstrated to depend on an interplay between two factors: embrittlement due to oxygen diffusion detrimental and increased closure due to oxide formation beneficial. As temperature is increased, the FCP rate first decreases closure effect and then increases very rapidly due to the oxygen ingress and embrittlement of the crack-tip region Ref This number is in reasonable agreement with the activation energy for diffusion of oxygen in nickel.

The environment also has the effect of changing the fracture surface morphology, which can cloud the effects of the environment. In a study using model nickel-base alloys Ref 51 , testing in air and testing in vacuum at elevated temperatures revealed similar crack growth rates.

Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics

However, in air the fracture surface exhibited crystallographic facets and was macroscopically rough. In vacuum, the surface was smooth.

When tests were carried out on a single specimen, first in air and then in vacuum, the crack growth rate decreased significantly in vacuum, leading to the conclusion that the environment was in fact playing a critical role even at temperatures where obvious oxide films were not formed. These results are shown in Fig. Environmental and closure effects can be separated. References cited in this section Antolovich and J. Campbell, W.

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Gerberich, and J. Underwood, Ed. Antolovich and B. Tien and T. Caufield, Ed. Merrick and S.